By Sam Parc, Dara O Briain

ISBN-10: 0198701810

ISBN-13: 9780198701811

Sit back: not anyone is aware technical arithmetic with out long education yet all of us have an intuitive seize of the guidelines at the back of the symbols. To have fun the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Institute of arithmetic and its purposes (IMA), this publication is designed to show off the great thing about arithmetic - together with photos encouraged by way of mathematical difficulties - including its unreasonable effectiveness and applicability, with out frying your mind.

The booklet is a set of fifty unique essays contributed via a wide selection of authors. It comprises articles by means of the very best expositors of the topic (du Sautoy, Singh and Stewart for instance) including interesting biographical items and articles of relevance to our daily lives (such as Spiegelhalter on chance and Elwes on clinical imaging). the themes coated are intentionally various and contain suggestions from uncomplicated numerology to the very innovative of arithmetic study. each one article is designed to be learn in a single sitting and to be available to a normal viewers.

There can also be different content material. There are 50 pictorial 'visions of arithmetic' which have been provided in accordance with an open demand contributions from IMA contributors, Plus readers and the global arithmetic group. you will additionally discover a sequence of "proofs" of Phythagoras's Theorem - mathematical, literary and comedy - after this, you will by no means consider Pythagoras a similar means back.

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**Example text**

Ancient maths for modern footballs So seams and panels are important. It would be useful to know exactly how much seam there is on a modern ball and also whether any other conﬁguration of ball panels can give a better result. On a classic 32-panel ball, each side of each pentagon or hexagon is shared with its neighbour. So if we calculate the total perimeter of all the hexagons and pentagons and divide by two we’ll have our answer. There are 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons, so the combined perimeters add up to 6 × 20 + 5 × 12 = 180 sides and dividing by two gives us 90 individual portions of seam.

What possible advantage could this have? The answer is that strings can vibrate. In fact, they can vibrate in an inﬁnite number of diﬀerent ways. This is a natural idea in music. We don’t think that every single sound in a piece of music is produced by a diﬀerent instrument; we know that a rich and varied set of sounds can be produced by even just a single violin. String theory is based on the same idea. The diﬀerent particles and forces are just the fundamental strings vibrating in a multitude of diﬀerent ways.

The diﬀerent particles and forces are just the fundamental strings vibrating in a multitude of diﬀerent ways. The mathematics behind string theory is long and complicated, but it has been worked out in detail. But has anyone ever seen such strings? The honest answer is ‘no’. The current estimate of the size of these strings is about 10–34 metres, far smaller than we can see today, even at CERN. Still, string theory is so far the only known way to combine gravity and quantum mechanics, and its mathematical elegance is for many scientists suﬃcient reason to keep pursuing it.

### 50 Visions of Mathematics by Sam Parc, Dara O Briain

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