By A Hilbeck; David Alan Andow
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Extra resources for A case study of Bt Maize in Kenya
Farmers without IPM training used three times more pesticide and sprayed twice as frequently on their Bt cotton plots as the farmers with IPM training. Thus, institutional support is needed to ensure that smallholder farmers in China obtain the benefits Bt cotton offers. Resistance risk is the main risk of Bt cotton that is managed in China. Resistance risk management relies on the combined use of the fused Cry1A toxin and CpTI in the same varieties to delay resistance evolution in H. armigera and P.
Yield increases, insecticide reduction and economic benefits for smallholder farmers were inconsistent in China and undetectable in South Africa. In China, institutional support is needed to ensure that smallholder farmers obtain the benefits of Bt cotton, including guarantee of the quality of Bt cottonseed, incentives to reduce pesticide use and support for IPM training. , 2006c). It is likely that yield, insecticide use and economic benefits of Bt cotton in Vietnam will follow those of smallholders in China or South Africa rather than those of large-scale growers in the USA, Australia or Argentina (Biotechnology Institute, 2003a).
2 sprays/season for Bt cotton (INGARD®), a 57% reduction (Fitt, 2004). During the first several years of use, Bt cotton required 40–60% fewer insecticide applications than conventional, non-Bt cotton (Fitt, 2004). With Bollgard II varieties, pesticide reductions of 85% have been achieved and, in situations of high pest pressure, economically significant yield increases have been realized (Gary Fitt, Brisbane, 2007, personal communication). , 2005). Resistance evolution in H. armigera is considered the most serious risk and Australia has implemented a comprehensive resistance management strategy to delay it (Fitt, 2004).
A case study of Bt Maize in Kenya by A Hilbeck; David Alan Andow