By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This book provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken by means of fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the made from large examine through the authors and contributors in box equipment and workforce learn classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and includes ten chapters protecting the segmental phonology, tone approach, morphology, and sentence constitution, by way of appendices at the Nzadi humans and historical past and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a few fish species. sooner than this paintings, Nzadi had now not even been pointed out within the literature, and at present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the research of Nzadi is its massive grammatical simplification, leading to buildings relatively diverse from these of canonical Bantu languages. even if Nzadi has misplaced many of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun classification contract in genitive structures. different components of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause buildings, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet entire grammar presents extensive assurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic homes that may be of strength curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people drawn to this region of the DRC, but additionally to typologists, common linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
To them’ ‘to him/her’ As in the case of nouns, LHL pronouns become HL, while LH pronouns do not change. Unique in the pronominal system is the third person human singular pronoun ndé which has L-H tone in isolation. As seen, when directly preceded by kó, it becomes H-H. á bç& ‘to them’. 34] cf. 1). Either way the prefix vowel is H and the stem becomes HL unless it is underlyingly LH. The only difference between nouns and pronouns concerns ndé ‘him/her’. e. kó m@b vâ ‘to the dog’, ndé does not change.
42] atE@ + é + mùùr osEE + é + mùùr adza + é + mùùr esaa + é + mùùr ! ! atéé múùr osee múùr adzéé múùr esee múùr ‘the person’s saliva’ ‘the person’s pain’ ‘the person’s water’ ‘the person’s food’ As seen, both long and short vowels assimilate before /é/, with the potential mergers. 43] otû + é + wàá odzó + é + mùùr ikwç + é + mùùr ! ! 44] ntswé + bç& ntswé + é + bç& ! 2. g. 3 Vowel Centralization In normal speech a short /e/ in open syllable is often centralized to [ˆ]. When preceded by a labial consonant, it may be realized [ˆ] or [U].
33]. The question is how to interpret the above tonal changes. On the one hand they might be viewed as arbitrary, with HL replacing L, H, and LHL stem tones after kó (and genitive é, to be discussed below). The alternative is to attempt to derive the HL tones from an appropriate, underlying tonal input. The tone of kó is clearly /H/. e. /kó ` á/. Perhaps this L tone is responsible for the L tone realization of /a/ in forms like kó a múùr. 35]. 2) to which the H of /á/ joins to form the HL which will ultimately replace the L or H tone of the noun stem.
A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo by Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu