By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A historical past of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
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Extra info for A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (History of the Crusades (University of Wisconsin Press))
Flotte, pp. • 3 ff. 81 Until the peace of Mignano in I I 39, when his hold on the Italian mainland was finally made secure, Roger could interfere in Mahdia actively only in I I 34-r r 35 during a short lull in Europe. M eanwhile, however, he spun the net of intrigue in which he eventually trapped his victim. He used "peaceful" infiltration, political and economic blackmail, and intimidation, as well as force. In I I 34 Roger heeded the call of al-l;Iasan for help against Y al)ya, the emir of Bougie, who was besieging Mahdia.
Her son Roger II, who according to the marriage contract should have inherited Jerusalem, naturally conceived an "eternal hatred" of the kingdom and its people. The failure to acquire Jerusalem was more than compensated for elsewhere: in Africa eventually, but more immediately on the Italian mainland. In August I I 2 7 duke William of Apulia, son of Roger Borsa and last male successor of Robert Guiscard in the direct line, died, whereupon Roger II crossed the strait of Messina with an army and marched on Apulia to claim it as his "heritage".
When al-l;Iasan declared his insolvency, Roger sent twenty-five ships under the command of George of Antioch, who confiscated Egyptian ships anchored in the harbor of Mahdia and a ship belonging to al-l;Iasan, about to sail for Cairo with gifts for the caliph al-l;Iafiz. Next, Roger forced new ag reements upon al-l;Iasan, attaching so many conditions that, as one Arab author puts it, al-l;Iasan was in the position of Roger's 'ami!. pu, Rog•r II, Rtgcsten, no. 54· The treaty is printed in G . Filippi, ''Patto di pace tra Ruggiero II normanno e Ia citta di Savona," Arrlti'
A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (History of the Crusades (University of Wisconsin Press)) by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard