By William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton
This entire paintings presents a penetrating research of recent center jap historical past, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, throughout the problem of Western imperialism, to the influence of US foreign regulations. After introducing the reader to the region’s background from the origins of Islam within the 7th century, A background of the fashionable heart East makes a speciality of the prior centuries of profound and sometimes dramatic swap. even though equipped round a framework of political historical past, the booklet additionally rigorously integrates social, cultural, and financial advancements right into a unmarried, expertly crafted account. In updating this 5th variation of the overdue William Cleveland’s renowned introductory textual content, Martin Bunton offers a radical account of the foremost transformative advancements during the last 4 years, together with a brand new bankruptcy at the tumultuous Arab uprisings and the participation of Islamist events in a brand new political order within the heart East.
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Extra info for A History of the Modern Middle East (5th Edition)
The persistence in pursuing erroneous policies – for fear of being off-message; for fear of jeopardising one’s career; for fear of the political consequences of ‘incorrectness’; or because of an unwillingness to produce, or an incapability of producing, an alternative – was a feature of the entire post-war period. PROLOGUE 9 The third of Merton’s tenets was the ‘imperious immediacy of interest’, where the desire for an outcome is so great that there is a wilful ignoring of its effects. This is, of course, different from ignorance that comes from simply not knowing.
None of these neo-conservative ideologies was in any way particularly involved with the Middle East, except in the narrow sense that there was a frequent overlap between their concern with American power and national security, and the security and defence of Israel. Nevertheless, the fact that these groups adopted Bernard Lewis’s perspective on the Middle East allowed for the formulation of a policy that seemed to have all the ingredients of specificity for 6 THE OCCUPATION OF IRAQ the Middle East, and in particular Iraq, when the time came to justify the invasion/liberation of that country.
In fact, the Ba’ath regime, which had a terrible record otherwise, steered clear of being associated with acts of terror against the USA. The WMD argument might possibly have fitted (at its edges) with the War against Terror, if such WMD had indeed existed in Saddam’s Iraq. After an exhaustive search for several months by the Iraq Survey Group, however, none was found – and neither was there any incriminating evidence connecting the former regime either with the 9/11 plotters or the al-Qaeda organisation.
A History of the Modern Middle East (5th Edition) by William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton