By Allan Waters (auth.)
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17) So far we have normalised the capacitors C 1 , C2 and obtained the normalised values for the resistors R 1 , R 2 • We now have to obtain values for the gain resistors R 3 , R 4 for the good circuit design condition of minimum de offset. 8 shows the re-drawn circuit for the de condition where the capacitors are now represented by open circuits. 8 DC condition for second-order low-pass filter giving R =K -1 =K(R1 +R 2 ) R3 - 4 hence We now have all the necessary information to enable a complete design to be achieved.
LF. Here fc =2kHz giving C1 = C2 = 10/(2 x 103 ) = 5 nF. 10 with its response. 2 It should be pointed out that an adjustment to the scaling may be made in order that realistic values of resistors and capacitors may be achieved. F It can be seen that with a larger value of capacitor, the resistor values are more realistic. 3. 11 Gain/phase responses for second-order VCVS filter An insight into the action of the filter may be obtained by noting that at low frequencies the reactances of C1 and C2 are high and the signal is applied via resistors R 1 and R 2 with negligible attenuation.
It employs the infinite gain VCVS concept associated 44 Active Filter Design with the operational amplifier and the circuit offers external gain adjustment via components Y 5 and Y 6 • It will be seen in chapter 8 that this type of filter structure, employing the non-inverting (positive gain) operational amplifier, exhibits a high Q-factor sensitivity with the circuit gain [K = 1 + (R 6 /R 5 )]. Because of this high sensitivity, the configuration is restricted to low Q and low gain values with a trade-off being a wide frequency bandwidth.
Active Filter Design by Allan Waters (auth.)