By Stephen Tanner
Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, the area was once riveted as American army strength contested the mythical warrior tradition of Afghanistan. via spring 2002, the USA started to draw down its forces, its project entire: The Afghan Taliban regime has been overthrown and the terrorists it harbored have been at the run. was once America's effortless victory evidence of its army superiority, or have been the Afghans purely eyeing the newbies as they've got watched overseas armies in centuries earlier, understanding time is on their side?For over 2,500 years, the forbidding territory of Afghanistan has served as an important crossroads--not only for armies yet for clashes among civilizations--the Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, and Tartars, and in additional fresh instances, Britain and Russia. Now the United States needs to face a brand new enemy in this land--a land that for hundreds of years has develop into a graveyard of empires past.This first-ever whole army background of Afghanistan illuminates the extensive historic context into which American forces were drawn--a cautionary story, maybe, in regards to the hazards which could lie forward.
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Additional info for Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban
The Macedonians turned back and arrived at the position. Some officers were impressed that the Great King had constructed fortifications along some points of the river. This indicated to them that the Persians were afraid. Darius's army was far larger than Alexander's, which consisted of about 48,000 men, though by choosing such a confined battlefield he negated much of its superiority. It consisted of forces from Persia and the empire's western domains. The Roman historian Curtius said, "As for Bactrians, Sogdians, Indians and others .
The only Macedonian success had been achieved by Alexander on the right, and after the Persian troops on that side were in flight, he 22 AFGHANISTAN turned his cavalry against the Greeks in the center. He assailed them from the flank and rear, cutting his way toward the center, where Darius stood. Curtius wrote: "Then the carnage truly took on cataclysmic proportions. " As the Greeks gave way, and Darius's own Persian guard began to collapse, the king had to make a quick decision: either die or be captured in his first battle with Alexander, or retreat and maintain the empire.
In fact, he waited for four days. Having secured his own logistics, the delay may have been meant to weaken the larger Persian force through hunger and its consequent demoralization. Otherwise, his problem was that he could not hope to match the width of Persian front in a wide field, and, given the enemy's superior cavalry, knew he would be outflanked from the beginning. His solution was to organize his army into a rough rectangle. The heavy Macedonian infantry was aligned across the front, his own Companion Cavalry on the right, and Parmenio's Thessalian horsemen on the left.
Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban by Stephen Tanner