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B) A lookout to windward is very much more difficult to maintain than one to leeward, especially if rain or snow accompanies the wind. MEANS TO AVOID SUBMARINE: It is advantageous to have a strong wind abaft the beam. Lookouts to windward should be increased and frequently relieved. --- 30 --- RULE: In a light breeze a submarine may attack from either windward or leeward side. If the attack is from windward, a torpedo fired is probably a bow shot. If from the leeward, it probably is a stern shot.

82. -RULE: When choice is possible, a submarine will attack from the direction toward the sun. , frequently, but only for a short time and but a few inches of it exposed) it can not be seen by any possible means when it is in water in which the sun is reflected directly toward the ship. Even the track of bubbles will probably not be seen until it is too late to avoid the torpedo. (b) In an attack toward the sun the glare dazzles a periscope operator, making it difficult to judge the course, speed, or distance of the ship.

I) In order to make the determination of the base course impossible, the zigzag should extend over a period of at least half a day, the apparent base course being changed at intervals varying from 40 minutes to 1 hour 20 minutes. (j) In constructing zigzag diagrams, possible conditions of sun glare, prevailing wind, and position of light areas during twilight should be considered, and the zigzag selected so as to afford the greatest advantage with regard to light, wind, and sea conditions. --- 32 --- Source: "ONI Publications, WWI" ZV file, Navy Department Library.

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Anal. of the Advantages of Changing Speed, Course (Submarines) [website capture]

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